TOR: Undertaking a Study on Gender Dimensions of Climate Security and Adaptation in the contexts of Resilience, Peace and Stability in Kenya – Kenya

REF: ACT-GCS-04-2023

1.1 About Act Change Transform (Act!)

Act Change Transform (Act!) is a not-for profit non-governmental organization that was established in Kenya in September 2001 and registered under the provisions of Non-Governmental Organizations Coordination Act of 1990. With an organizational vision of empowered communities living productive lives in dignity, Act! focuses on building the capacity of individuals and communities, thus empowering them to get involved in the decisions and management of their own development. Act! approaches its development work through three broad programmatic areas; 1) Peace Building and Conflict Transformation, 2) Democracy and Human Rights, 3) Environment and Natural Resources.

1.2 Resilience Peace and Stability (RPS) Programme
The Resilience, Peace, and Stability (RPS), Programme funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) and implemented by Act Change Transform (Act!), aims to promote resilience, peace, and stability in Kenya by decreasing violent extremism, political and natural resource-based conflicts. While the project addresses three major localised dimensions of conflict, political, resource-based, and violent extremism, RPS places priority on addressing the drivers of violence. The program hypothesizes that strengthening opportunities for inter- and intra-community dialogue, supporting authorities and communities in effectively and equitably sharing resources, and enhancing the ability of law enforcement to respond to security threats is expected to improve community resilience and reduce the level of conflict.

Overall RPS Program objective: “Decrease violent extremism, political and natural resource-based conflicts in Kenya.”

1.3 RPS Program outcomes:

1. Enhanced cooperation and trust between communities and government agencies (esp. police) based on respect for human rights and good governance.
2. Enhanced relations between groups and communities affected by conflict (inter-ethnic, intra ethnic, other conflictual in-groups and out-groups.)
3. Increased anchoring of at-risk individuals in the communities through improved messaging, economic opportunities, social linkages and sense of belonging especially for women, youth and vulnerable communities to reduce pull and push factors towards violence.

2.0 Understanding the Climate Security and Gender Dimension
Climate change is a major concern across the world with differentiated impacts on people and the planet. Low and middle-income countries are often affected most heavily due to their high dependence on climate-sensitive agricultural economies, limited governance structures, and institutional capacity to cope with the complex impacts of climate change. In Africa, rising temperatures and shifting weather patterns varying in scope and scale across the region have become more severe and frequent. Impacts have included extreme weather events such as heatwaves, heavy precipitation, prolonged drought, wildfires, and flooding among others threatening lives and livelihoods.
Climate-related security risks occur when critical thresholds are exceeded, and the coping capacity of communities and countries is compromised. Security risks are manifested through food insecurity, poverty, and increased inequality. Climate change impacts can cascade into other socioeconomic systems affecting job markets, global food prices, and geopolitical stability. These security risks are not limited to violent conflicts but can also be observed in other types of insecurity including organized crime, armed group activity, and sexual and gender-based violence.

Specific interlinkages including both direct and indirect threats to human and national security have been observed across sectors as follows:

1. Water: Increased water shortages because of prolonged drought or rainfall fluctuation can expose women and children to increased risks of sexual and gender-based violence as they are forced to walk long distances to collect water.

2. Food and rural development: Increased food insecurity and price volatilities as a result of climate change can lead to heightened competition for land and natural resources contributing to instability and fragility that affects women and girls.

3. Energy: Women and girls especially in rural areas are in most cases responsible for collecting firewood for families cooking needs. With destroyed vegetation they have to walk longer distances, resulting in enhanced risks for gender-based violence.

4. Urbanization: Climate-related disasters lead to increasing rural-urban migration. Climate refugees found in remote towns in ASAL areas comprise women and girls living in deplorable conditions.

5. Governance: The strength of governance structures affects how well a country responds to climate change impacts and risks. If climate disasters occur, the legitimacy of state institutions is also threatened. Similarly, the lack of alternative livelihoods in the face of climate change effects on natural resource-based livelihoods can incentivize young people, including girls to join armed groups.

The above outcomes of the linkages between climate change and security are highly contextual, localized and, vary depending on exposure, vulnerability, and coping capacity of a locality. In Kenya for example, the outcomes not only vary across counties and communities but also within them. Contextual analysis of the intricate web between climate security and gender is limited and a thorough gender analysis is necessary to identify whether observed climate change impacts genders differently. This analysis can further the planning and implementation of new modes of gendered climate change adaptation and mitigation programming in conflict prone counties that reflect the multidimensional and interconnected nature of climate change impacts.
The emerging hazards from climate change and emerging conflicts affect genders differently, producing gender biased effects to women and girls, therefore complicating their lives more despite the fact that they have always held the shorter part of the stake socially and economically in notoriously patriarchal societies. Gender roles that are affected by changing weather patterns especially in ASAL counties include looking for food, water and firewood. For men (and male youth), it often involves migrating with livestock to faraway places in search of grazing resources. This practice exposes them to conflicts and violence. Women are affected by conflicts resulting from increased competition over natural resources, loss of livelihoods, climate-related disasters, and forced migration and displacement. Given the magnitude of the problem and different effects on gender roles, it is imperative to undertake empirical studies to understand gender dimensions as regards climate security and adaptation, current mitigation measures and use the information for RPSP programming purposes.

2.1 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to enhance the understanding of how climate change and the resultant insecurity in its various manifestations in the ASAL areas of Kenya affects both genders differently. This will be done through an engagement with key stakeholders working in climate change and conflict including government bodies both national and county, gender departments, CSOs, community members, environment and security think tanks among others. The specific objectives are:

a. Establish key climate security issues that have specific effects on women, men, children and PWDs and how;

b. Identify the priorities, challenges and opportunities experienced by actors involved in the implementation of gendered climate security interventions especially under the women peace and security agenda (WPS) in Kenya;

c. Document case studies, important lessons learnt, gaps & mitigation measures in the engendering of climate security interventions in ASAL areas in Kenya;

d. Identify windows of opportunity and practical recommendations for advancing the gendered climate security agenda in Kenya.

2.2 Approach and Methodology

The study is mainly qualitative, applying descriptive and analytical techniques. This should involve assessment of the international and national/local governance and policies that influence the gendered outcomes in Climate security and impacts and necessary policy interventions. Key steps will be identification of stakeholders at both national and county levels for interviews, a situational assessment of the gender and climate security issues and current interventions. The gender analysis should further bring out issues in terms of formal and informal practices and how these are likely to support or hinder climate security. The analysis should include role and challenges of both genders in different sectors including land tenure system, energy, education, health care, conservation, agricultural practice and water.

Suggested data collection methods include desk review focusing on the current climate change and Conflict related legislation: Include the climate change Act 2016, the Kenya National Action Plan (KNAP) on UNSCR 1325, the Constitution of Kenya, County Governments Act, National Strategy to Counter Violent Extremism, Draft Women CVE Charter, Sessional Paper No. 5 of 2014 on National Policy for Peacebuilding and Conflict Management, County Integrated Development Plans (CIDPs) as well as relevant reports and studies. Assess the policy and social context in which the 2010 constitution applies with respect to Climate change and gender, the likely gendered outcomes and impacts on community. This assessment should ensure inclusivity and the impact of local attitudes to the state of affairs in climate conflicts. An important step with regard to the gendered social assessment of climate security issues will include defining and understanding the different roles of different social groups.

2.2.1 Key Tasks

The study will be done through an engagement with key stakeholders working in climate change and conflict including government bodies both national and county, CSOs, community members, environment and security think tanks among others. Key tasks include;
• Literature review and desk study of general and specific effects or impact of climate security on gender and special interest groups across key sectors in Kenya. Also describe, analyze and critique the pertinent UN documents, local legislation, regulation, standards and policies that are relevant and applicable to the management of climate security gender issues.
• Relate the implementation of the 2010 constitution of Kenya to climate security and gender, role of devolved government and increased participation of citizens in decision making.
• Document the general and specific effects or impact of climate security on gender and special interest groups
• Survey, interviews and focus group discussions with relevant partners, community groups, and expert organizations implementing climate security programs, national and in specific counties
• Production of the gender and climate security assessment report:
• Conduct a validation workshop of the draft report on gender and climate security with identified key partners/ experts in the country and internal staff.
• Integrate feedback on the draft report to produce the final gender and climate security assessment report for Kenya.

2.2.2 Outputs/Deliverables

a. Inception report for the gender and climate security study. The inception report should detail the interpretation of the task, the proposed approach and methodology for conducting the study, key team members and their role in the study; the proposed work schedule; the approved data collection and analysis tools; and proposed outline of the final report(s).
b. First Draft Report highlighting findings on status of gender and climate security and the current interventions or innovations to address gender issues in climate security;
c. Second draft report to be presentation during a stakeholder validation workshop
d. Validation Workshop reports;
e. Second and final report of the study of the climate security in Kenya.

The final study Report should include a detailed status and recommendations for gender and climate security interventions with a focus on sustainability. The analytical report should not be more than 40 pages excluding annexes. All other materials should be submitted as annexes to the main report. The outline of the main shall have been approved as part of the inception report and must be guided broadly by the following headings:

• The title of the report;
• Executive Summary;
• Introduction (including background on gender and climate security, methodology and structure of the report);
• Key findings and discussions;
• Conclusions and Recommendations for programming;
• Annexes (if any).

2.2.3 Time frame
The consultancy is expected to take a maximum of 45-person days commencing 20 March, 2023. These include the preparatory phase, data collection and report writing. The final deliverables should reach Act! by 5th May, 2023.

3.0 Qualifications
The Consultancy firm or team of individuals with the following qualifications.
a. Proven experience in gender studies, evaluation and/or conducting evaluations with expertise in gender, environmental/climate change and conflict issues;
b. Previous experience and good comprehension of the local context where the assessment will be conducted;
c. Minimum 5 years of relevant experience with gender and climate security, conflict prevention, and resilience and/or environmental management;
d. Experience in a national setting with national or international organizations is an asset;
e. Fluency in the English language is required.

4.0 Selection Procedure

Qualified consultant or consultancy firms are invited to submit the following on or before the deadline provided below;

1. A five-page proposal to Act! interpreting the terms of reference and elaborating the consultancy methodology and design, level of effort required to fully deliver the assignment, and with a work plan and budget (cost application) for undertaking the assignment with separate Itemized costs under:
(a) Professional fee per day, (b) logistical Costs e.g. vehicle hire, research assistants, accommodation costs etc. per day.
2. Brief overview of consultant/consultancy firm and the skills and experience they would bring to assignment
3. CV of consultant or CVs of team members– maximum 3 pages or a Company/firm profile.
4. Contact details of three referees from organizations that have recently contracted the consultant/s to perform similar or related work for the last 2-3 years.
5. Sample reports of relevant consultancy work.

How to apply

Submission on the Expression of Interest/Responses to TORs

All proposals should be submitted electronically in (PDF format) to quoting the reference number ACT-GCS-04-2023 on the e-mail subject line. The same should be submitted not later than 05:00 PM (East African Time) Wednesday 15th March, 2023.

All materials to be developed under this assignment are property of Act! and may not be reproduced under any circumstances.

Act! is an equal opportunity employer with zero tolerance to corruption

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